PCB Layout

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HOW DO YOU BUILD A PCB CIRCUIT?

From design to finished electronics, gadgets, smartphones, home appliances or appliances, etc. all the electronics equipment you want to see, PCB layout is very important. PCB layout samples allow to test a given design to determine if it works. This allows you to debug and correct any errors. This is also very useful before mass production. If there are no PCB layout prototypes (PCB Prototype), the large-scale production of electronic PCB layout board and related products are still at risk.

In complex circuit boards, minor errors can be very expensive and time-consuming and difficult to correct. Wrong board design settings can make soldering electronic components really hard. It also becomes more difficult to point out the wrong points on the board. Hence, it is sensible to design a PCB layout sample proof before real production to dodge any prospective dangers.

Okay, let me introduce to you what is a printed circuit board or PCB layout.

An electronic device features the use of PCB circuit boards. Printed circuit boards or PCB are boards composed of non-insulating and high thermal resistant insulating elements such as fiberglass. They are also known as substrates. A PCB layout substrate can have only a single layer (single layer circuit board) or more than one layer (multilayer circuit board). Conductive metals, such as copper and aluminum, are utilized in making conductive paths or copper traces to aid current flow and lessen power loss by thermal radiation. Once the PCB layout is soldered, it is called a "printed circuit board." After soldering electronic components, the same PCB is called a printed circuit board semi-finished product (PCBA).

PCB circuit board proofing

In the design process of a new circuit, it is important to draw the circuit board schematic before PCB board proofing. The board schematic will help debug and repair any errors that occur during this process and make sure that the copper board design will include the design rules. If the circuit on the PCB board layout is simple, you can use a very easy to understand sample board. In the case of complex and customized circuit boards, it is necessary to make a sample PCB layout board.

PCB circuit board layout design software tool

To start making PCB circuit board layout, you need board information such as Gerber files and experience that features settings in PCB software tool online or offline. PCB layout software can be used for this purpose. A PCB layout design software draws the circuit board layout and all copper traces, and points out that the electronic component placement will be soldered on the circuit board. The PCB layout looks like a chart. The PCB layout board design software allows editing the layout until the desired layout is achieved which follow your design rule to produce gerber file for PCB manufacturer or designer to use.

PCB Layout is a high-level engineering tool for PCB(print circuit board) design featuring smart manual routing of high-speed and differential signals, Shape-based automatic cabling, advanced verification, and import/export capabilities. Now the PCB layout software used by PCB layout company includes Altium Designer, Pads, OrCAD, Eagle, and P-CAD.

How to generate Gerber

Anyone who is in contact with copper circuit board design should be no stranger to Gerber. The Gerber file is a phrase we often hear. So what is a Gerber file? what's the effect? How to generate it?

What is Gerber file

The Gerber format is a collection of file formats that features circuit board industry software tool that include describing circuit board (circuit layer, solder mask layer, character layer, etc.) images and drilling and milling data. Most PCB design engineers or designers are customary to designing the PCB files and then sending them immediately to the factory that features the PCB design for settings and processing. The more traditional universal method that features the conversion of PCB files into Gerber files and drilling data before transferring them to the PCB factory following the design rules.

Gerber file is a universal official light rendering format file. It contains two formats: RS-274-D and RS-274-X. RS-274-D is known as the primary Gerber format and must be guided by a D-code data. Sufficient settings of a graphic; RS-274-X is called the extended Gerber formats, which include D code erudition. Generally utilized CAD design software tool can produce these pair formats.

What Gerber files do

Simply put, the Gerber file is to separate the PCB file layer by layer, which is conducive to the smooth progress of Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM).

How to generate Gerber files?

Let's take Altium Designer or eagle as an example to see how to generate a board Gerber file. We will be focusing on altium instead of eagle. It doesn’t need much experience to generate although, it needs a little experience. Or you can check for online tool menu that can help you out in days.

Gerber files in Altium Designer need to be generated through three outputs, the steps are as follows:

1. First output:

Under the DXP menu bar, select File> Fabrication Outputs> Gerber Files.
1.1 Under the layer form, click Plot Layers and select Used On.
1.2 Click OK to complete the output.

2. Output again:

Under the DXP menu bar, select File> Fabrication Outputs> Gerber Files.
1.1 Under the layer form, click Plot Layers and select Used On.
1.2 Click OK to complete the output.

First output:

2.1 In the layer form, select Plot Layers> All off in turn, and tick Mechanical (x) of the Layer name on the right.
2.2 Set the following requirements under the Drill Drawing form:
Under Drill Drawing Plots, select Plot all used layer pairs.
Under Drill Guide layer pairs, select Plot all used layer pairs.
2.3 Click OK to complete the output.

3. The third output:

Click File> Fabrication Outputs> NC Drill Files, select Leading / Trailing Zeroes in the middle of the dialog box and select Suppress leading zeroes. Then click the OK button in the lower right corner. Complete the third output.

Steps in making a PCB Layout design

There are several complex processes and options include in manufacturing a PCB layout circuit boards.

1: In this process, the mask or photomask is combined with chemical etching to subtract the copper area from the PCB circuit board substrate. Create a photomask using a CAD plotter design software program tool using a photoplotter designer. Photomasks were also created using laser printers.

2: Lamination:A multilayer PCB layout design is composed of multiple layers of thin etched boards or trace layers, and is bonded together by a lamination process.

3: Drilling:Each layer of the PCB layout design needs to have the ability to connect one layer to another; this is achieved by drilling a small hole called "VIAS". Drilling is mainly done by using automatic computer-driven drilling machines.

4: Pad spraying:The soldering points of the electronic components are sprayed with tin or chemical immersion on the pads on the PCB circuit board to solder the electronic components. Bare copper is not easy to solder. It requires that the surface be plated with a material that facilitates welding. Earlier lead-based tin was used to plate surfaces, but with RoHS (Restriction of Hazardous Substances) compliance, newer lead-free materials such as nickel and gold are now used for electroplating.

5: Test the PCB layout design:Before soldering the tips of electronic components to the PCB layout, they need to check the PCB design settings. This test can be performed using a test stand tester or a flying probe test, which is a circuit board testing tool operated by other computers, which are used in the manufacturing process.

Whether it is PCB circuit board proofing or batch manufacturing, the manufacturing process and process are similar, except that the cost of manufacturing PCB circuit board samples is not the same as the cost of the previous tool allocated during batch manufacturing.

When manufacturing PCB proofing, it is important to follow the rules from film making to testing. Any minor mistake may render the PCB circuit board useless. In the case of mass production, proofing of PCB design samples is necessary.

HOW DOES PCB WORKS?

A printed circuit board, or “PCB layout board,” has several major advantages over the old ways of building electronics. In the past, each component inside an electronic device was connected by large wires and placed where they could fit. Printed circuit boards use a different approach. The components are mounted on a non-conductive board and connected by small tracks called “tracks”. Because printed circuit boards are usually designed on a computer, they fit many components into a minimal space.

When you check at the PCB layout traces in are easily noticeable. These thin lines are conductive and connect all components in a circuit. They replace the much larger wires used in the past. The PCB layout also has many tiny holes. They are drilled exactly where it is necessary to place each component. For example, if the chip is part of the PCB layout and requires eight connections, the same number of holes will be made on the board. Thus, parts of the electronic circuit can be installed completely flush, without long wires or wires. Again, this saves significant space. The last parts added to the PCB layout board are the components themselves. These are small electrical devices that must be connected in order for the device to work and to follow the PCB design rule. Common components include microchips, diodes, resistors, and switches. Components do the “work” of the circuit, while the circuit board provides connections.

The working principle of the PCB layout design process is to isolate the surface copper foil conductive layer by using the board-based insulating material, so that the current flows through various components along the pre-designed routing to complete tasks such as work, amplification, attenuation, modulation, demodulation, encoding Features.

The PCB board is mostly made up of electrical boundaries, connectors, pads, mounting holes, padding vias, wires and components. Common board layout structures include one-layer PCB layout, two-layer PCB layout (Double Layer PCB design) and multilayer board or Multi-Layer PCB layout. The major role of every component are as follows:

Pad: A metal hole used to solder component pins.

Vias: There are two types of vias; metal vias and non-metal vias. Metal vias are used to connect component pins between layers.

Mounting hole: it is meant for mounting of circuit board.

Wire: Copper film which is used to connect component pins for good electrical network.

Connector: they are used for connections between two or more circuit boards.

Filling: copper for ground network, can efficiently decrease impedance.

Electrical boundary: used to determine the size of the circuit board, all components on the circuit board must not exceed this boundary.

WHICH SIDE OF THE PCB THE COMPONENTS ARE MOUNTED

Electronic components are the cells of electronic information tool. The emergence of different types of electronic components will always lead to a revolution in board-level circuit assembly technology.

Electronic components are the units that make up electronic products. Identifying and correctly selecting electronic components is the basis for learning and mastering electronic technology. With the development of electronic technology, electronic components have played an increasingly important role in electronic products.

Any change in electronic components can cause changes in electronic products for customer. For example, the continuous miniaturization of electronic products benefits from electronic components. The volume of devices is becoming smaller and smaller, and the speed of electronic products also benefits from the speed of electronic components.

At present, a large number of new electronic components are still being developed and applied. Identifying electronic components has become an important ability for electronics practitioners to continuously learn and update. The process of electronic components being permanently fixed on a PCB circuit board by soldering is called circuit board assembly (PCBA). Correctly identifying the electronic components on the assembled PCB layout circuit board plays a positive role in understanding the operation of the circuit.

Although some electronic components on the circuit board have similar appearances, they may have different package types. In this way, the internal structure and use of electronic components are very different. For example, the components packaged as TO-220 may be triodes, thyristors, field effect transistors, or dual diodes; components with TO-3 packages may be triodes, integrated circuits, etc. For example, diode packages include glass packages, plastic packages, and bolt packages. Diode varieties include zener diodes, rectifier diodes, tunnel diodes, fast recovery diodes, microwave diodes, and Schottky diodes. These diodes have one or more packages.

There are several steps to identify the settings of a specific electronic component and which side of the PCB the components are mounted to follow the design rule in the design process.

After such a series of steps, electronic components can be identified, but there are hundreds of categories and thousands of types of electronic components. From the perspective of the specific appearance characteristics of electronic components, they are all kinds of different forms. There are many emergences, so the task of identifying electronic components is still onerous.

Of course, there is also a method to quickly identify electronic components, that is, the physical object corresponds to the name, that is, to understand the component name, its shape and circuit symbols. If you want to use this settings, you can try to walk into an electronic component specialty store. The components in the store are usually placed by category, and their names will be marked next to them. Corresponding to the name and name quickly and conveniently, you can enhance Perceptual recognition, such visual information input has the advantages of high learning efficiency and large amount of information, and it can still be remembered after several years.

When it comes to mounting those components on PCB boards we need to know which side we should mount it.

Why choose PCBONLINE PCB layout

1、PCBONLINE has own PCB manufacturing factory and SMT factory experience in all producing specification. PCB layout and design has a comprehensive making process and sets very strict specifications and standards in each process to meet the process requirements of the PCB factory and assembly factory. PCB layout creator export producing specification not only can use in PCB prototyping process, but also meet the requirement of mass production. We insist on doing PCB layout design online successfully at once. Reduce the number of research and development so that our customers reduce costs, and can get your products to market quickly.

2、PCBONLINE is also a PCB layout company, which has a group of R&D team with outstanding technical ability in PCB layout Altium, PCB layout Kicad, PCB layout eagle. They have rich product development experiences in PCB layout for power supply, PCB layout Arduino, PCB layout Arduino Uno, PCB layout for musical effects, PCB layout for musical effects PDF, PCB breadboard layout and production experiences in RFID, Internet of things (IoT), video monitoring, HD camera, video code and so on. For examples, RFID product solutions, BRT bus rapid transit priority system, 2.4g electronic lock product solutions and Internet of things production.

3、PCBONLINE PCB layout contractor has theory and practical skills, proficient EDA skills, and rich practical experience in signal integrity simulation analysis and power source integrity analysis

4、PCBONLINE Layout capability

Feature Capability
Layer 1-16L
Max PIN amount 46262
Max connections 33126
Min line track 3mil
Min line space 3mil
Min via 8mil
Min BGA 0.5mm
Max speed signal 10G

PIN number/pcs Lead-Time:Working Days
≤1000 3-5
2000-3000 5-7
4000-5000 8-12
6000-7000 12-15
8000-9000 15-18
10000-13000 18-20
14000-15000 20-22
16000-20000 22-30

How to cooperate with PCBONLINE to PCB layout